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徐振雄教授&計畫團隊~通識法學●法學通識 教學部落格
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★總計畫主持人:徐振雄教授
★99年度「科技法學與專業倫理」整合型課程創新計畫:案例、理論與實務的跨域對話
★98年度「法律通識課程結合理論與實務之案例與對話教學模組整合型計畫
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★96年度「以憲法案例式教學培養大學校院學生的憲法意識」
【執行學校:萬能科技大學通識教育中心,本計畫由教育部顧問室補助】
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美利堅合眾國憲法

The Constitution of the United States of America
美利堅合眾國憲法
一七八七年九月十七日憲法會議通過
一七八九年四月三十日批准生效
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
 
<序文>
我們美國人民,為了建立一個更完善的聯邦,樹立公平的司法制度,保障國內的治安,籌設共同防衛,增進全民福利,使我們自己和後代子孫,永享自由的幸福,乃制定並確立了這一部美國憲法。
 
Article I
Section 1.
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
 
第一條<立法>
第一項(國會)
憲法所授予之立法權,均屬於參議院與眾議院所組成之美國國會。
Section 2.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.
第二項(眾議院)
眾議院以各州人民每二年選舉一次之議員組織之,各州選舉人應具該州眾議院議員選舉人所需之資格。
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.
凡年齡未滿二十五歲,為美國國民未滿七年,及當選時非其選出州之居民者,不得為眾議院議員。
Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
眾議院議員人數及直接稅稅額應接美國所屬各州人口分配之。各州人口,包括所有自由民及服役滿相當期間之人,以及其他人民數額五分之三,但未被課稅之印第安人不計算之。人口之統計,應於美國國會第一次會議後三年內及此後每十年,依法律之規定舉行之。議員人數以每三萬人中選出一人為限,但每州最少應有議員一人。在舉行前項人口統計前,新罕布什爾州(New Hampshire)得選出三人,馬薩諸塞州(Massachusettes)八人,羅得島州(Rhode Island)及普洛威騰士墾植地(今羅得州之省會)一人,康涅狄克州(Connecticut)五人,紐約州(New York)六人,新澤西州(New Jersey)四人,賓夕爾法尼亞州(Pennsylvania)八人,德拉瓦州(Delaware)一人,馬里蘭州(Maryland)六人,佛吉尼亞州(Virginia)十人,北卡羅來納州(North Carolina)五人,南卡羅來納州(South Carolina)五人,喬治亞州(Georgia)三人。
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
任何一州所選議員中遇有缺額時,該州之行政機關應頒布選舉令以補足該項缺額。
The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
 
眾議院應選定該院議長及其他職員;並唯眾議院有提出彈劾之權。
Section 3.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
第三項(參議院)
美國參議院由每州州議會選舉參議員二人組織之,參議員任期六年,每一參議員有一表決權。
Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
參議員於第一次選舉後集會時,應儘可能平均分為三組。第一組參議員應於第二年年終出缺,第二組參議員於第四年年終出缺,第三組參議員於第六年年終出缺,俾每二年得有三分之一參議員改選。在任何一州議會休會期間,參議員如因辭職或其他情由而有缺額時,該州行政長官得於州議會下次集會選人補充該項缺額前,任命臨時參議員。
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.
凡年齡未滿三十歲,為美國國民未滿九年,及當選時非其選出州之居民者,不得為參議員。
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
美國之副總統為參議院之議長,但除該院參議員可否同票時,無表決權。
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.
參議院應選舉該院之其他職員,遇副總統缺席或行使美國總統職權時,並應選舉臨時議長。
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.
唯參議院有審判一切彈劾案之權,審判彈劾案時,全體參議員應宣誓或作代誓之宣言。美國總統受審時,最高法院院長應為主席。非經出席參議員三分之二之同意,不能判定任何人之罪責。
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.
 
彈劾案之判決,以免職及剝奪享受美國政府榮譽或有責任,或有酬金之職位之資格為限。但被定罪者仍可受法律上之控訴、審訊、判決及處罰。
Section 4.
The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
第四項(國會議員之選舉與國會之集會)
舉行參議員及眾議員選舉之時間、地點與方法,應由各州州議會規定之;但國會得隨時以法律制定或修改此類規定,關於選舉參議員之地點,不在此限。
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
 
國會每年至少應開會一次。除法律另定日期外,應於十二月第一個星期一集會。
Section 5.
Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.
第五項(國會會議之進行)
各議院應自行審查各該院議員之選舉,選舉結果之報告,及議員之資格。每院議員出席過半數即構成決議之法定人數。但不滿法定人數時得延期開會,並得依照各該議院所規定之手續與罰則強迫缺席之議員出席。
Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.
各議院得規定各該院之議事規則,處罰各該院擾亂秩序之議員,並得經議員三分之二之同意,開除議員。
Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.
各議院應設置其議會之議事錄,並應隨時將其紀錄刊布之,但各議院認為應守秘密之部分,不在此限。各議員對於任何問題之贊成與反對投票,經出席議員五分之一之請求,應載入紀錄。
Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
 
在國會開會期內,每議院如未經他議院之同意不得延會三日以上,亦不得將兩議院之開會地點移於他所。
Section 6.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
第六項(議員之權利)
參議員與眾議員應得服務報酬,由法律規定其數額,並從美國國庫支付之。兩院議員,除犯有叛逆罪、重罪及妨害治安之罪者外,在各該院開會期間及往返於各該院之途中,不受逮捕,各該院議員不因其在議院內所發表之言論而於議院外受詢。
 
No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.
 
無論參議員或眾議員,於當選之任期內,均不得受任為美國政府所新設或當時增加薪俸之任何文官。凡在美國政府下供職之人,於其任職時不得為國會議員。
Section 7.
All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.
第七項(法案與決議案)
徵稅法案應由眾議院提出,但參議院對之有提議權及修正權,與其對其他法案同。
Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
凡眾議院及參議院所通過之法案,於成為法律前,應咨送美國總統,總統如批准該法案,應即簽署之,否則應附異議書,交還提出法案之議院。該院應將該項異議書詳載於議事錄,然後進行覆議。如經覆議後,該院議員有三分之二人數同意通過該項法案,應即將該法案及異議書送交其他一院,該院亦應加以覆議,如經該院議員三分之二人數亦認可時,該項法案即成為法律。但遇前項情形時,兩院應以贊成與反對之人數表決,贊成或反對該項法案之議員姓名並應登記於各該院之議事錄。如法案於送達總統後十日內(星期日除外)未經總統退還,即視為總統簽署,該項法案成為法律;惟國會因休會致該項法案不獲交還時,該項法案不得成為法律。
 
Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
 
凡必須經參議院及眾議院同意之命令或決議或表決,(休會之問題除外)應咨送美國總統。該項命令或決議或表決於發生效力前,應經總統批准,如總統不批准,應依照與法案有關之規則與限制,由參議院及眾議院議員三分之二人數再通過之。
Section 8.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
第八項(國會之權限)
國會有左列各項權限:
一、       規定並徵收所得稅、間接稅、關稅與國產稅,用以償付國債,並籌劃合眾國之國防與公益。但所徵各種稅收,輸入稅與國產稅應全國劃一。
To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
二、       以美國之信用借貸款項。
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;
三、       規定美國與外國、各州間及與印第安種族間之通商。
To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughhout the United States;
四、       規定全國一律之歸化法規及破產法。
 
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;
五、       鑄造貨幣,釐定國幣及外幣之價值,並規定度量衡之標準。
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;
六、       制定關於偽造美國證券及通用貨幣之罰則。
To establish post offices and post roads;
七、       設立郵政局並建築郵政道路。
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
八、       對於著作家及發明家保證某著作品及發明物於限定期間內享有專利權,以獎進科學文藝。
To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
九、       設立最高法院以下之法院。
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
十、       明定及懲罰在公海上所犯之海盜罪與重罪,及違反國際法之犯罪。
To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;
十一、   宣戰、頒發捕獲敵船許可證,並制定關於陸海捕獲之規則。
To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
十二、   徵召並供應陸軍,但充作該項用途之預算,不得超過二年。
To provide and maintain a navy;
十三、   設立並供應海軍。
To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
十四、   制定陸軍海軍之組織及管理法則。
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
十五、   規定招集國民兵以執行美國之法律,鎮壓內亂,並抵禦外侮。
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
十六、   規定國民兵之組織、武裝與訓練,並指揮管理受召而服務於美國之國民兵團,惟任命長官及依照國會所定法律以訓練國民兵之權,由各州保留之。
 
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; And
十七、   對於經州讓與且經國會承受,用充美國政府所在地之區域(其面積不得超過十平方英里)行使完全之立法權。對於經州議會許可而購得之地方,用以建築要塞、軍火庫、兵工廠、船廠及其他必要之建築物者,亦行使同樣權利。
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
 
十八、   為執行以上各項權力,或為執行本憲法授予美國政府或政府中任何機關或官員之權力,國會得制訂一切必要而適當之法律。
Section 9.
The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.
第九項(禁止國會行使之權力)
現有任何一州所允准予移入或准予販入之人,在一八○八年之前,國會不得禁止之。但對於其入境,得課以每人不超過十元之稅金。
 
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
人身保護令狀之特權不得停止之。惟遇內亂外患而公共治安有需
要時,不在此限。
No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
公權剝奪令或溯及既往之法律不得通過之。
No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
人口稅或其他直接稅,除本憲法前所規定與人口調查統計相比例者外,不得賦課之。
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.
對於自各州輸出之貨物,不得課稅。
No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.
任何商務條例或稅則之規定不得優惠某州商港而薄於他州商港。開往或來自某一州之船舶,不得強其進入或航出他州港口,或繳付關稅。
No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.
除法律所規定之經費外,不得從國庫中文撥款項。一切公款之收支帳目及定期報告書應時常公布之。
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
 
美國不得授予貴族爵位。凡在美國政府下受俸或任職之人,未經國會之許可,不得接受外國國王或君主所贈與之任何禮物、俸祿、官職或爵位。
Section 10.
No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
第十項(禁止各州行使之權力)
任何州不得:加入任何條約、盟約或邦聯;頒發捕獲敵船許可狀;鑄造貨幣;發行信用票據;使用金銀幣以外之物,以作償還債務之法定貨幣;通過公權剝奪令,溯及既往之法律,或損害契約義務之法律,或授予貴族爵位。
No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.
無論何州,未經國會核准,不得對於進口貨或出口貨,賦課進口稅或出口稅,惟執行檢查法律上有絕對必要者,不在此限。任何一州,對於進口貨或出口貨所課之一切進口稅或出口稅之純所得應充作美國國庫之用;所有前項法律,國會得予修正與管理。
No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
 
無論何州,未經國會核准,不得徵收船舶噸稅,不得於平時設立軍隊或戰艦,不得與他州或外國締結任何協定或契約,或交戰。但遭受實際侵犯或急迫之危險時,不在此限。
Article II
Section 1.
The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:
第二條<行政>
第一項(總統)
行政權屬於美國總統。總統之任期為四年,副總統之任期亦同。總統與副總統,應依照左列程序選舉之。
Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.
各州應依照各州州議會所定程序選派選舉人若干名,其人數應與各該州所當選派於國會之參議員與眾議員之總數相等。但參議員或眾議員,或在合眾國政府不受俸或任職之人,不得被派為選舉人。
 
The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.
選舉人應集合於本州,票選二人,其中至少應有一人非選舉人同一州之居民。選舉人等應造具被選人姓名及每人所得票數之名冊,署名並證明之,封印後即以之送達美國政府所在地,逕交參議院議長。參議院議長應當參議院與眾議院全體議員之前,開拆所有證明書,然後計算票數。凡獲得選舉票最多,且該票數超過選舉人總數之半數者,當選為總統。如有一人以上獲得此項過半數並獲相等之票數時,眾議院應即投票選舉其中一人為總統;如無人獲得過半數,該院應以同樣方法從名單上票數最多之五名中選舉一人為總統。但選舉總統時,應由各州投票,每州之代表有一表決權。為此目的而舉行之眾院會議,其法定人數須達三分二之州所選出之眾議員出席,且須以諸州過半數為當選。凡於選出總統後,獲得選舉人所投票數最多數者即當選為副總統,但遇有兩人或兩人以上獲得相等之票數,參議院應投票選舉其中一人為副總統。
 
The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
國會得決定選舉選舉人之時間及選舉人投票之日期。該日期須全國一律。
No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States.
無論何人,除出生而為美國公民或在採行本憲法時即為合眾國之公民者外,不得當選為總統。凡年齡未滿三十五歲及居住於合眾國境內未滿十四年者,亦不得當選為總統。
 
In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
如遇總統因免職、亡故、辭職,或不能執行總統之職權而去位時,由副總統執行總統職務。國會得以法律規定關於總統與副總統皆免職、亡故、辭職或無能力任職時,宣布應代行總統職權之官員,該官員代行總統職權,至總統之能力恢復或新總統選出時為止。
The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
總統於任期內應受俸金,該項俸金於任期內不得增加或減少之。總統於任期內不得收受美國或任何州之其他俸金。
 
Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
 
總統於執行職務前,應為左列之宣誓或代誓之宣言:「余謹誓(或宣言)以忠誠執行美國總統之職務,並盡余所能以維持愛護並保障美國之憲法。」
Section 2.
The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
第二項(總統之權力)
總統為海陸軍大元帥,並為被徵至合眾國服務諸州國民兵之統帥;總統得令行政各部長官,以書面發表其與職務有關事項之意見。總統並有權對於違犯美國法律者頒賜減刑與赦免,惟彈劾案不在此限。
 
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
總統經參議院之咨議及同意,並得該院出席議員三分之二贊成時,有締結條約之權。總統提名大使、公使、領事、最高法院法官及其他未另作規定之美國官吏,經參議院之咨議及同意任命之。但國會如認為適當,得以法律將下級官員之任命權授予總統、法院或各部長官。
 
The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.
 
總統有權任命人員以補參議院休會期間所發生之缺額,惟該項任命應於參議院下
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