徐振雄教授&計畫團隊~通識法學●法學通識 教學部落格

關於部落格
★總計畫主持人:徐振雄教授
★99年度「科技法學與專業倫理」整合型課程創新計畫:案例、理論與實務的跨域對話
★98年度「法律通識課程結合理論與實務之案例與對話教學模組整合型計畫
★97年度「開發『資訊生活與法律』課程教材與對話式教學模組創新計畫」
★96年度「以憲法案例式教學培養大學校院學生的憲法意識」
【執行學校:萬能科技大學通識教育中心,本計畫由教育部顧問室補助】
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存款盜領與信用卡盜刷相關法律問題-議程 /王玉楚律師

<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: distribute-all-lines; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">教育部九十八年度法學教育教學研究創新計畫</span></b></span></span><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 16pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-align: center"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">法律通識課程結合理論與實務之案例與對話教學模組整合型計畫</span></b></span></span><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: distribute-all-lines; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">子計畫(三)系列講座</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">1-</font></span></b><b><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「法律與生活」課程</span></b></span></span><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><span style="font-size: small"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><br /><br />主辦單位:萬能科技大學通識教育中心</span></span></span><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><span style="font-size: small"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日期:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">98</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">10</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">月</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">12</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">星期一</span></span></span><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><span style="font-size: small"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">地點:萬能科技大學</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp; </font></span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">學生活動中心五樓</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> I516</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">室</span></span></span><font size="3"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><span style="font-size: medium"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p><span style="color: #000000"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></span></o:p></span></span></p><span style="color: #000000"><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><table class="MsoNormalTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="636" border="1" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; width: 477pt; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: double black 2.25pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .75pt solid black; mso-border-insidev: .75pt solid black"><tbody><tr style="height: 59.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><td width="636" colspan="2" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: black 2.25pt double; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 477pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: double black 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid black .75pt"><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center"><span style="font-size: medium"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="text-transform: uppercase; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">議</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="text-transform: uppercase; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="text-transform: uppercase; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">程</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="text-transform: uppercase; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="text-transform: uppercase; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">表</span></b></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table></span><table class="MsoNormalTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="636" border="1" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; width: 477pt; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: double black 2.25pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .75pt solid black; mso-border-insidev: .75pt solid black"><tbody><tr style="height: 59.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><td width="636" colspan="2" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: black 2.25pt double; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 477pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: double black 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid black .75pt"><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 59.2pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1"><td width="120" style="border-right: black 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.2pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3"><font face="Times New Roman">15:00~15:15</font></font></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3"><font face="Times New Roman"><o:p></o:p></font></font></span></p></td><td width="516" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 387pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.2pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">子計畫(三)主持人</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">-</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">吳明陵老師</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 291.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 2"><td width="120" style="border-right: black 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 291.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3"><font face="Times New Roman">15:15~16:15</font></font></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3"><font face="Times New Roman"><o:p></o:p></font></font></span></p></td><td width="516" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 387pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 291.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 30.6pt; text-indent: -30.6pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">主題:</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">存款盜領與信用卡盜刷相關法律問題</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">主講人:</span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: Arial">鼎力法律事務所 王玉楚 律師</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 71.8pt; mso-yfti-irow: 3"><td width="120" style="border-right: black 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 71.8pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3"><font face="Times New Roman">16:15~16:40</font></font></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3"><font face="Times New Roman"><o:p></o:p></font></font></span></p></td><td width="516" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 387pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 71.8pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">綜合座談</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 20.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 4; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><td width="636" colspan="2" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 477pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 2.25pt double; height: 20.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt"><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center"><span style="color: #000000"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">散</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </font></span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">會</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table>
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資訊隱私權的理論與實務2 /錢世傑老師

<div class="Section1" style="layout-grid: 18pt none"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《資訊達人的看法》</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">資料外洩的管道很多,常見有幾種情況。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第一,無紀錄複製</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一般電腦系統存取時,都會留下稽核紀錄,但是熟悉系統的網管人員利用管理上的疏失,可以隨意地進入系統,竊取客戶資料,卻不會留下任何的紀錄。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第二,企業端系統遭入侵</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">目前最常見的攻擊手法,是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">SQL Injection</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的資料庫攻擊,許多攻擊者到大陸的網站下載攻擊程式,不需要太多的技術能力,就能夠侵入許多企業的資料庫,藉此偷取客戶資料。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第三,客戶端電腦遭入侵</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">木馬氾濫的年代,郵件的附檔、不明連結,家族的檔案、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">msn</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">朋友傳來的訊息,甚至於連上正常網站,都有可能被植入木馬。遭植入木馬者,有如家中藏著一個人,根本毫無隱私可言,當然更可能成為詐騙集團蒐集個人資料的管道。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><a name="_Toc185992528"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">一、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">資料拼圖</span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《實案追緝》恐怖的資料拼圖</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">PayEasy</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">發現可疑</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">IP</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">共利用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">3</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">萬</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">9000</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">筆非法取得的帳號與密碼,企圖登入</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">PayEasy</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">網站,其中</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">59%</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">並非</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">PayEasy</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">會員;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">27%</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">會員帳號正確,但密碼錯誤;對於近</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">14%</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">約</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">5400</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">多筆被測試得逞的會員帳號已被凍結交易功能,同時以簡訊、電子郵件緊急通知帳號擁有者,請他們立即更改密碼,即可恢復正常交易。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《事件分析》</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">網路犯罪集團蒐集外界四處流竄的大量個人資料,從四面八方取得大量個人資料,包括身份証字號、電話、地址、出生日等,以及網站登入資料,例如帳號、密碼、交易紀錄等,進行「資料拼圖」,目的是拼湊成足以詐騙消費者的「有用訊息」,以供詐騙之用。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">例如,原來的資料只有「</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">id/psw/email/tel</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">」,經比對另一個資料庫「</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">id /psw/phone/ birth d/address</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">」,接下來就拼湊成「</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">id /psw/email/tel/phone/birth d/address</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">」。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">由於消費者的習慣,或者是說比較懶惰,可能在申請許多網站會員時,都使用同一組的帳號密碼,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">PayEasy</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的這一起事件,也驗證出來消費者都是懶惰的。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">懶惰的消費者,除了要勤換密碼外,儘量使用多組密碼,對於個人資料的保護才能更完善。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《個人看法》</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">所以資料拼圖,其實就是「資料探勘」</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(Data Mining)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的另一種說法。透過資料的整合分析,可以讓簡單的資料變成極為有用的行銷工具。隨著相關科技設備的快速發展,目前許多金融機構的「客戶關係管理」,即充分利用此一技術,獲取企業的最大利潤。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">詐騙集團似乎也善用科技設備,讓被騙者的資料更形完備,真是所謂的知己知彼,百戰百勝。曾有媒體報導,有一名男子假冒行政執行處的執行官,到一名民眾的家中,謊稱要扣押其房子。因為執行官談到這名民眾的資料,都正確無誤,也讓民眾誤以為真,情急之下,領出</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">75</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">萬元交給這名「執行官」,以擔保換取免於假執行。看來,這真的是道高一尺,魔高一丈,民眾真的要小心了。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><a name="_Toc185992529"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">二、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">新型態的白色恐怖</span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 19.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -19.5pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 19.5pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">(一)<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">時代的趨勢─客戶關係管理之興起</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">前文所提到的「客戶關係管理」(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Customer Relationship Management</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,簡稱</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">CRM</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">),這個名詞似乎很陌生,卻是近幾年最熱門的科技。隨著資訊科技的快速演進,各行業為有效進行客戶行銷,紛紛以各種管道蒐集客戶資料,最近幾年資料倉儲(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Data Warehousing</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)與資料探勘(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Data Mining</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)等技術成本大幅度降低,使得各行各業,包括銀行、醫院、補習班、健身俱樂部等,紛紛搭上蒐集個人資料的風潮。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">利用資料倉儲及資料探勘的技術,分析客戶潛在性消費傾向,藉以掌握消費趨勢,讓產品更符合消費的需求,以利量身訂作的客制化服務。若缺乏大量個人資料的資料庫,當然無法進行資料分析比對,企業將如無頭蒼蠅一般亂飛,無法抓住市場的動向。因此,在此資訊時代,各行各業都將個人資料視為企業之寶藏,以此作為「客戶關係管理」的基礎。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 19.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -19.5pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 19.5pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">(二)<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">個人資料的高附加價值</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">個人資料有價值嗎?一份個人資料一毛、一塊錢,還是十塊錢呢?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">當然,資料的價值要看資料的內容而定。如果只是一些客戶名單的姓名、身分證字號,恐怕含有數萬筆資料的光碟一片,賣個三千元也就算多了。但是,若能夠詳細描述客戶的消費習慣或特殊資料,則其價值就難以估算。例如有些不法的徵信業者,私下以特殊管道取得民眾資料,以每筆數千元的代價販售給債權人或討債集團,這種資料的價碼就更高了。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">金融控股公司法之通過,使金控公司能在跨業整合經營下,交互運用客戶資料,分析發掘資料間隱藏的關聯性,以掌握客戶,針對不同客戶提供個別需求的客製化產品。例如,從信用卡消費資料中,得知某客戶曾購買汽車、改裝商品,則可以將此資料提供給保險部門,由保險部門規劃汽車保險的商品給這名客戶。因為提供的商品規劃剛好符合客戶的需求,如此一來,將可以大大地提升交易成功的機率。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 19.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -19.5pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 19.5pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">(三)<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">階層化社會的白色恐怖</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">你曾經接到百貨公司的邀請,宣稱百貨公司將為屬於頂級客層的你,封館舉辦秋冬服裝展示及特賣活動嗎?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">相信大多數的讀者,從來沒有收過這樣的邀請,只能在電視上看到少數的社會名流人士享有這樣的特殊待遇,實在讓人感觸良多,難道在業者眼中,我們的價值這麼低嗎?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">是的。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">各位如果沒辦法享有這些特殊待遇,顯示你在業者的眼中價值真的很低。在現代這種資訊社會中,要是沒有辦白金卡或比白金卡更高級的信用卡,年刷卡消費額沒有達到一定數額者,名下沒有房子、車子,個人年收入過低,都會被歸類為次級消費者,銀行等業者以減少服務項目的方式,降低客戶服務的成本,或收取較多的費用,以彌補提供服務所需之花費。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">這些措施都會造成客戶不平等的待遇,例如信用卡一般常見的包括普卡、金卡、白金卡,所提供的汽車拖吊服務就有差別,普卡可能需要繳交部份拖吊費用,金卡雖免費,但拖吊距離可能只有</span><st1:chmetcnv tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="30" unitname="公里" w:st="on"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">30</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">公里</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,白金卡則可以免費拖吊</span><st1:chmetcnv tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="50" unitname="公里" w:st="on"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">50</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">公里</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">;又如國內知名的中國信託信用卡,客戶免費客服專線是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">0800-024365</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,但只限於以市話撥打,才能享有免費服務,一般客戶無法以手機撥打該專線享受免費服務,必須以手機撥打其他市內付費服務專線,才能享有客戶服務,但是若年刷卡金額超過</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">30</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">萬元,則可晉升為</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">VIP</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">客戶,客服專線變成</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">0800-001000</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,無論手機或市話皆可撥打,且都享有免費服務。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">從以上說明與例證顯示,消費能力不佳的客戶將因為業者蒐集與分析個人資料,產生新型態的社會階層,被歸類於低層次之客群將造成經濟上新型態的不利益,從另一種角度來看,新時代的「白色恐怖」已經悄然成形,值得深思。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><a name="_Toc185992530"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">三、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">認識選擇退出權</span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">當消費者不想將自己的資料分享給金控公司的其他關係企業,或者是擔心金控公司會將個人資料賣給行銷業者,行銷業者一不小心,就將資料洩漏給第四人。這時候,該怎麼管控個人資料的流向呢?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">實際上,有一種「選擇退出權」</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(opt out)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的權利可以行使,但是一般銀行將客戶資料視為寶山,不太可能教育客戶如何行使這項權利。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">什麼是「選擇退出權」呢?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">簡而言之,就是金融控股公司及其子公司與其他第三人進行共同行銷、於揭露、轉介或交互運用客戶資料,或使用客戶資料從事共同業務推廣行為時,客戶得隨時通知停止對其個人資料交互運用及共同業務推廣行為。依據相關法令規定,選擇退出權不僅指從行銷名單上除名,還包括禁止任何「運用」客戶資料的行為,當然包括分析、分享等行為在內</span></p><table class="MsoNormalTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext"><tbody><tr style="height: 36.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 86.4pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 36.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="120" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 36.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">行銷名單除名</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="177" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 132.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 36.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">其它運用客戶資料行為</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 35.6pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1"><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 86.4pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 35.6pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">金融機構作法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="120" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 35.6pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">●</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="177" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 132.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 35.6pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(</font></span><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">故意忽略</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><font face="Times New Roman">)<o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 43.25pt; mso-yfti-irow: 2; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 86.4pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 43.25pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">法令之規範</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="120" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 43.25pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">●</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="177" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 132.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 43.25pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">●</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(</font></span><span style="font-size: 8pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">不只是行銷名單除名,還包括任何運用客戶資料的作為</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 8pt"><font face="Times New Roman">)<o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">這種「選擇退出權」的權利,有點兒像是加入某一個網站的會員,填寫個人資料後,陸陸續續地收到許多廣告信件。如果不要再收到這些廣告信件,可以透過網路系統取消這些信件的訂閱。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">只是,「選擇退出權」的實質內容更廣,不只是行銷名單的排除,還包括任何運用客戶資料的行為。許多銀行不知是裝傻,還是根本不懂「選擇退出權」的真正意義,往往以含混模糊的文字說明,讓民眾誤以為選擇退出權僅限於行銷名單上除名,對於禁止金控公司其他各種分析、運用客戶資料的行為,不願意貫徹執行。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">如何行使「選擇退出權」?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">只要打電話給金控公司的客服電話,表示要行使「選擇退出權」,金控公司就有義務馬上幫您辦好。實務運作上,許多客服人員仍不瞭解什麼是「選擇退出權」,例如筆者曾打電話給中國信託的客服人員,對方雖然知道選擇退出權,但卻誤以為是將我的資料從行銷名單上去除而已。其他銀行的程度更差,有些客服人員還花了很多時間,才搞清楚什麼是選擇退出權。此時,身為聰明的消費者,就應該義正辭嚴地「教育」這些專業的客服人員,別讓他們不足的專業能力,剝奪你應享有的權利。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><a name="_Toc185992531"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">四、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">住宅外觀資料庫</span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《實案追緝》寬頻房訊法拍屋外觀事件</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">立委召開記者會,指寬頻房訊公司將民眾個人資料結合其住家外觀放在網站上供人瀏覽,有些人看到自家住宅配合個人資料被公布在網路上,令人「頭皮發麻」。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">寬頻房訊公司利用法院公告法拍屋債務人資料,結合相對應的法拍屋外觀圖片,公布在該公司電腦網站供會員瀏覽,涉嫌觸犯電腦處理個人資料保護法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">簡稱個資法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,板橋地方法院審結,判處涉案的五人無罪。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《法令分析》</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">板橋地方法院法官見解,認為被告的行為雖已違反個資法,但因其「<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="color: black">欠缺違法性之認識,得免除罪責</span></b>」,故判處無罪。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">電腦處理個人資料保護法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">84</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年公布至今,由於諸多條文構成要件不明確等因素,未能建構出一個明確健全的規範環境讓人民遵守,被告的行為縱屬不法,然其違法性尚輕,且對於法拍資訊的流通與促進交易活動,確有相當提振作用。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">在相關法制未臻健全,人民對個人資料保護的權利意識普遍不足的情況下,如何能期待被告認識其所為為法律所禁止或處罰?因此法院判處無罪。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《個人見解》</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一般建築物的外觀照片,並不符合個資法第</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">3</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">條有關個人資料之定義。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">個資法第</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><font face="Times New Roman">3</font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">條第</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><font face="Times New Roman">1</font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">款</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">個人資料:指自然人之姓名、出生年月日、身分證統一編號、特徵、指紋、婚姻、家庭、教育、職業、健康、病歷、財務情況、社會活動及其他足資識別該個人之資料。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 9pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">單從住家或建築物外觀的影像,並沒有辦法與個人產生特定的連結關係。換言之,並不會因為看到照片,就知道照片中建築物的所有權人或居住人的身分,只能從這張照片,得知所在地址而已。除非在資料庫中還有其他「足資識別個人之資料」,當住宅外觀資料庫與其他資料庫結合時,則有違反個資法的疑慮,板橋地方法院也是採取這樣子的見解。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></div><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA"><br clear="all" style="page-break-before: always; 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資訊隱私權的理論與實務1 /錢世傑老師

<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><font size="3"><b><span style="font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-font-kerning: 26.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">資訊隱私權的理論與實務</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: &quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 26.0pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: &quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 26.0pt"><o:p><font size="3">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></b></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">一、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">概念建構</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">) </font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權之概念</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權是「<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal">個人領域內事務的控制權</b>」。「個人領域」指個人在公共生活或涉及公共事務以外的生活領域,是個人決定其生活目標和追求人格發展的保留空間。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權即是在其個人領域中有完全的自主控制權,自由地形成其生活型態,除非涉及公共或他利益,一個人的決定應受到完全的尊重。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">網路交易活動對個人隱私權有侵害時,如何主張救濟,是各國法律制度上的一大挑戰。以歐盟與美國的發展為例,美國要求業者自律,歐盟則傾向立法。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">本文認為自律是基本的要求,自律之外還是必須有法律的規範。否則,只有自律,網路使用者將永遠不會自律,打著不應壓抑科技發展的大旗,行侵害隱私之事實。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span>(</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">二</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國隱私權的法令保障</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國的法律,除了專門規定與電腦有關的隱私權保護法律外,其他還包括憲法、民法、刑法及電信法等,都與隱私權保護有關。我國在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">84</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年公布施行「電腦處理個人資料保護法」(簡稱個資法),但是人民隱私權在資訊社會的保障卻仍顯不足。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><a name="_Toc185992526"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">二、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">隱私發展的三階段</span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國隱私權一直不受到重視,印象中,大約是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">94</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年的年中,蘋果日報連續以頭版頭條報導了好幾次資料外洩的事件,民眾才驚覺隱私權的重要。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權的內涵到底是什麼?本文將以三階段的發展,來闡述實質內涵:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">(一)<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">傳統隱私權</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">1890</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年,美國學者華倫</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(Samuel D. Warren) </font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">及布蘭德斯</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(Louis D Brandies)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">發表「隱私權」(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">The Right to Privacy</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)之文章中,認為隱私權就是「生活的權利」(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">right to life</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)與「不受干擾的權利」</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(the right to be let alone)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,係個人對其自身事務擁有公開揭露權,所保障的是個人的思想、情緒與感受,或不可侵犯的人格。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《實案追緝》公共電話亭事件</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">執法機關沒有監聽票,可不可以監聽電話亭內的談話內容?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">這是一起美國的案例。早期,美國是以「憲法保障領域之有無侵犯」為判斷標準。在電話亭外面監聽,並沒有侵入電話亭中,並不需要聲請監聽票。直到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Katz V. United States</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">案,則改採「人民受保護之隱私利益」有沒有被侵害為判斷標準,也就是後來所普遍採用的</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 標楷體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「合理隱私權之期待」原則。從「場所」的保護,轉變成對於「人」的保護。因此,即便是電話亭外的監聽,一樣要取得法院的監聽票。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 標楷體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國通訊保障及監察法也是採取「合理隱私權之期待」原則,其規定如下:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">通訊保障及監察法</span></b><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">第</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><font face="Times New Roman">3</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">條</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">本法所稱通訊如下:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 20pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: -2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">一、利用電信設備發送、儲存、傳輸或接收符號、文字、影像、聲音或其他信息之有線及無線電信。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">二、郵件及書信。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">三、言論及談話。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; background: #e6e6e6; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-style: italic">前項所稱之通訊,以有事實足認受監察人對其通訊內容有<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal">隱私或秘密之合理期待</b>者為限。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; mso-bidi-font-style: italic"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 19.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -19.5pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 19.5pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">(二)<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">資訊隱私權</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「資訊隱私權」應屬於隱私權的下位概念,主張對病歷、宗教信仰、消費記錄、前科、入出境等個人資料應有自我控制支配權,除了限制他人取得個人資訊外,更應擴張到控制自我個人資訊的使用與流向。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">個人有權決定對其個人資料是否開始或停止被他人蒐集、處理及利用,發現錯誤時,亦可要求更正,故資訊隱私權之意義,不僅具有消極防禦的性質,更具有積極請求權的特性。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">什麼是個人資料?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">依據電腦處理個人資料保護法第</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">3</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">條規定,個人資料係指「指自然人之姓名、出生年月日、身分證統一編號、特徵、指紋、婚姻、家庭、教育、職業、健康、病歷、財務情況、社會活動及其他足資識別該個人之資料。」另依據金融控股公司及其子公司自律規範第</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">2</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">條規定,這些資料又可歸納為基本資料、帳務資料、信用資料、投資資料及保險資料。以下分別舉例說明之:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><table class="MsoNormalTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext"><tbody><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><td valign="top" width="225" colspan="2" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 168.65pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">基本資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="198" colspan="2" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 148.35pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">敏感性資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 1"><td valign="top" width="66" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 49.55pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">項目</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="159" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 119.1pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">舉例說明</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="82" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 61.75pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">項目</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 86.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">舉例說明</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 2"><td valign="top" width="66" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 49.55pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">姓名</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="159" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 119.1pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">錢世傑</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="82" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 61.75pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">帳務資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 86.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">郵局帳號</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 3"><td valign="top" width="66" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 49.55pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">出生年月日</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="159" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 119.1pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><st1:chsdate w:st="on" year="1971" month="8" day="24" islunardate="False" isrocdate="False"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">71</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">8</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">月</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">24</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日</span></st1:chsdate><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="82" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 61.75pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">信用資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 86.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">退票紀錄:無</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 4"><td valign="top" width="66" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 49.55pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">手機號碼</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="159" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 119.1pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">0915-000000<o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="82" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 61.75pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">投資資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 86.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">擁有中信金股票30張</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 5"><td valign="top" width="66" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 49.55pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">E-mail<o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="159" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 119.1pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">chinalaw@seed.net.tw<o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="82" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 61.75pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">保險資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 86.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">每年保險費繳交30萬元</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 6; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><td valign="top" width="66" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 49.55pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">身分證字號</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="159" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 119.1pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">A12000000</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">9</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="82" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 61.75pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">其他資料</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td><td valign="top" width="115" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 86.6pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="001" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 0cm; line-height: 12pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">國民黨、民進黨</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 19.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -19.5pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 19.5pt"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">(三)<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></font></span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">行蹤隱私?</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「行蹤隱私」這個標題,為什麼後面還要再加上一個問號?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">因為,這個部份可能是未來的發展,雖然仍屬隱私權的下位概念,但是否值得保護,恐怕還要等待時間的考驗,目前似乎不在保護的範圍內。例如,現在許多相機都會紀錄</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">GPS</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的定位資訊,可以與地圖結合,讓其他人能了解你旅遊的過程。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">flickr.com</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">網站,提供照片上載的功能,若照片中含有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">GPS</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的資訊,就可以在該網站顯示照片以及照片的位置。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">這就是行蹤隱私的一種。其它比較常見者,如狗仔隊偷拍影視名人,知名歌星周杰倫,就曾經不滿狗仔偷拍,而在路上與狗仔發生衝突;英國王妃黛安娜搭乘他人汽車,更為了要躲避狗仔隊的追逐,超速而發生車禍,導致身亡,留下眾人的遺憾。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">RFID</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,有點類似於悠遊卡功能的無線射頻識別技術。世界知名的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">WallMart</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">賣場,本來想計畫使用此技術,讓結帳速度更加迅速,只要推車經過感應器,總共多少錢就一目了然。更有人利用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">RFID</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的技術,把消費者在賣場經過的路線紀錄起來,分析消費習慣。例如某位男士買了刮鬍刀之後,很高的比例會再去買</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">DVD</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,所以賣場將刮鬍刀與</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">DVD</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">放在一起,提供購買的便利性。凡此種種,透過資料探勘的技術,可以讓企業主更了解消費者,消費行為更能預測的結果,也直接地讓企業獲得更大的利潤。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><h2 style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 24pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 24.0pt"><a name="_Toc185992527"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">三、<span style="font: 7pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: Arial; mso-hansi-font-family: Arial">泛濫的資料外洩事件</span></a><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></h2><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><br />《實案追緝》東森得易購資料外洩事件</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">電視購物大行其道,假冒電視購物台人員來詐欺民眾的案件也不斷增加,其中,東森得易購即常被假冒。曾有報導指出,歹徒之所以能夠明確的選定民眾、進行詐騙,可能是因為購物台洩漏個資給詐騙集團。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">東森得易購</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u516C%u53F8"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">公司</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">對此也曾發表聲明,針對「無店鋪</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u5354%u6703"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">協會</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">」業者如東森</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u8CFC%u7269"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">購物</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、MOMO台及博客來</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u7DB2%u8DEF"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">網路</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">書店,都曾因個資外洩遭歹徒利用詐騙顧客,該</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u516C%u53F8"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">公司</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">將帶頭聯合其他業者建立「補償金制度」,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u672A%u4F86"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">未來</span></span></a><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u6D88%u8CBB"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">消費</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">者若能證明其個資遭業者外洩,又因詐騙而蒙受損失,即可檢具相關</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><a title="搜尋這個關鍵字的相關內容" target="_blank" href="http://www.contentinside.net/redirkey.aspx?wid=1&amp;kw=%u8CC7%u6599"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: windowtext; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; text-decoration: none; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; text-underline: none"><span lang="EN-US">資料</span></span></a></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">求償。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《事件分析》</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">東森得易購的「補償金制度」,看似主動積極的措施,其實消費者仍難以獲得保障,主要的問題關鍵點在於「舉證」。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">消費者必須要證明個人資料遭業者外洩,且還要因為詐騙而蒙受損失。詐騙而蒙受損失比較好舉證,例如匯款到特定人頭帳戶的單據;前者要證明個人資料遭業者外洩,則相當困難。因為,民眾又不是執法機關,無法主動進行調查,連消保官前往稽查時,也沒有發現資料外洩的情況,更何況是民眾。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">況且,即便是執法機關調查後,發現某販賣資料中有被害人的資料,又如何證明這是從東森不法取得。因為,現在個人留資料的情況非常盛行,詐騙集團的資料來源可能有多重管道,很難證明就是來自於東森得易購。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 6pt 0cm; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-para-margin-left: 0cm; mso-para-margin-top: .5gd; mso-para-margin-right: 0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom: .5gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">有時候,業者會採取「<b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal">偵測細胞</b>」,也就是放一筆假資料,如果這一批資料中有偵測細胞的資料,就代表是從該業者中流出。只是,東森得易購會告知消費者偵測細胞的內容嗎?總之,想要業者賠償,這可比登天還難。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
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我國對人權保障的實務議題2 / 張國聖老師

<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">參.現代人權的具體內容<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  經由三代人權觀念的發展,現代的人權觀念已經具有豐富的內容。雖然當前國際社會仍存在著各式各樣人權議題的爭論,儘管這些爭論涉及到人權保障的具體化內涵,但我們仍可以從人權觀念的發展歷程中,看出已經成形的人權具體內容。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  一般而言,現代人權在其內容上大致可分為下列四個部分:第一是「公民的自由權和政治權」;第二是「社會權、經濟權和文化權」;第三是「民族、人民和人類的集體權利」;第四則是「一些特殊人類群體的權利」。底下分別概述其具體內容。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">一.公民的自由權和政治權<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  公民的自由權和政治權是最早出現的人權內容,也是被國際社會普遍接受的人權價值。所謂「公民的自由權」係指「國家保障公民不受政府和他人對個人基本自由的無理侵害」。而「公民的政治權」則是指「國家保障公民得以參與政治或監督政治的管理,以使政府的治理能夠建立在民意的基礎上,而具有統治的合法性。」公民的自由權與政治權兩者之間具有密切的關聯性,公民的自由權保障是政治權得以實踐的基本條件,沒有自由權,則政治權無從展現;反之,政治權的保障,其目的即在於伸張與落實自由權的價值,否則,沒有政治權,政府的權力無從監督與節制,如此一來,公民的自由權也就會受到侵害。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  在現代民主國家中,國家對公民的自由權和政治權的保障多見於憲法對基本人權保障的規定之中。以我國憲法為例,就可以看到許多相關的規定,茲舉數例如下:<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第八條:「人民身體之自由應予保障,除現行犯之逮捕由法律另定外,非經司法或警察機關依法定程序,不得逮捕拘禁。非由法院依法定程序,不得審問處罰。非依法定程序之逮捕、拘禁、審問、處罰,得拒絕之。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十條:「人民有居住及遷徙之自由。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十一條:「人民有言論、講學、著作及出版之自由。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十二條:「人民有祕密通訊之自由。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十三條:「人民有信仰宗教之自由。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十四條:「人民有集會及結社之自由。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十五條:「人民之生存權、工作權及財產權,應予保障。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十六條:「人民有請願、訴願及訴訟之權。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十七條:「人民有選舉、罷免、創制及複決之權。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 64.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 45.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十八條:「人民有應考試、服公職之權。」</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">二.社會權、經濟權和文化權<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  社會權、經濟權和文化權一般被概括地統稱為「社會權」或「福利權」,其主要的核心內容在於國家要保障人民在物質生活、社會生活與精神生活的基本需要,以使人民可以有更充分和平等的機會有實現他們的自由權與政治權。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  換句話說,經濟權在於國家保障人民基本生活的需要,以維持其生存。而社會權則在於國家盡力使人民在社會生活中一方面得以免於恐懼與匱乏,另一方面可以維持人性的尊嚴。至於文化權則是國家要保障人民參與創造和享受科學文化的成果,避免文化生活的設施和公共文化資源為少數人所控制與壟斷,並同時促進人民心靈發展的需要。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  社會權、經濟權和文化權隨著人類文明的進步而不斷會有新的內容出現,以我國憲法為例,亦可見相關的規定。茲舉數例如下:<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 27pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第十五條:「人民之生存權、工作權及財產權,應予保障。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 27pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第二十一條:「人民有受國民教育之權利與義務。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 27pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">增修條文第十條中分別規定:「國家對於人民興辦之中小型經濟事業,應扶助並保護其生存與發展。」「國家應推行全民健康保險,並促進現代和傳統醫藥之研究發展。」「國家應重視社會救助、福利服務、國民就業、社會保險及醫療保健等社會福利工作,對於社會救助和國民就業等救濟性支出應優先編列。」「國家肯定多元文化,並積極維護發展原住民族語言及文化。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">三.民族、人民和人類的集體權利<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  以集體權利型態呈現的人權內涵係將民族乃至於全體人類視為生命的共同體,從而保障群體權利的實踐。集體權利的確立不僅保障人類群體的利益,同時也是為了保障個人權利的充分實現。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  集體權利在具體內容上包括了民族自決權、自然財富暨資源權、發展權、環境保護權、和平權、新聞流通權等。迄今為止,聯合國已經通過了許多相關的決議和國際公約來促進這些集體人權的實現。在聯合國的決議方面,例如一九五二年的〈關於人民與民族自決權的決議〉、一九六0年的〈給予殖民地國家和人民獨立宣言〉、一九六八年的〈發展權利宣言〉、一九七二年的〈人類環境宣言〉、一九七三年的〈對自然資源永久主權決議〉、一九七八年的〈為各社會共享和平生活做好準備的宣言〉、一九八四年的〈人民享有和平權利宣言〉;至於國際公約的代表性例證,包括一九八五年的《保護臭氧層維也納公約》(<span lang="EN-US">Vienna Convention on the Protection of Ozone Layer</span>)、一九八九年的《控制危險廢物越境轉移及其處置巴塞爾公約》(<span lang="EN-US">The Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Disposal</span>)、一九九二年的《聯合國氣候變化框架公約》(<span lang="EN-US">Framework Convention on Climate Change</span>)及同年通過的《生物多樣性公約》(<span lang="EN-US">Convention on Biological Diversity</span>)等。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">四.一些特殊人類群體的權利<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  所謂特殊人類群體的權利,也被稱為「類群的權利」。這類人權與集體人權的不同之處在於權利的主體並不是一個有組織的群體,而係指某一類具有共同性特質的群體。由於這類群體在社會中經常處於弱勢的地位,或者是這類群體具有比一般人更需要提供特殊地位的保障才能維持其人性的尊嚴。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  一般而言,這類需要提供特殊保護的群體通常包括有:婦女、兒童、老人、殘障人士、難民、戰俘、無國籍人士、外僑、犯罪被害人、罪犯、少數民族等。以我國的法制而言,包括憲法及許多法律都有相關的保障規定。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">就憲法而言,增修條文第十條中即有具體的規定:「國家應維護婦女之人格尊嚴,保障婦女之人身安全,消除性別歧視,促進兩性地位之實質平等。」「國家對於身心障礙者之保險與就醫、無障礙環境之建構、教育訓練與就業輔導及生活維護與救助,應予保障,並扶助其自立與發展。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">就法律而言,我國相關的立法保障包括:《兩性工作平等法》、《身心障礙者保護法》、《犯罪被害人保護法》、《原住民族教育法》、《原住民族工作權保障法》、《兒童及少年福利法》、《老人福利法》等。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">至於國際社會相關的措施亦所在多有,例如一九五一年國際勞工組織制定的《關於男女工人同工同酬的公約》、聯合國於一九五一年通過的《有關難民地位的公約》、一九五二年的《婦女政治權利公約》、一九七九年的《消除對婦女一切形式歧視的公約》、一九八九年的《兒童權利公約》等。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">肆.生活中的微觀人權:法律、道德與倫理的對話-案例分析<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  經由以上的說明,我們可以理解人權的豐富內涵實際上即是人性內在價值的全面展現,這也就是人性尊嚴與人文精神的發揚過程。所謂的人文精神即是將人作為主體來看待其整體生命成長歷程所展現的各式各樣的活動,而人權運動的發展都是促成生命價值的豐富與圓滿;而人性尊嚴即是對人各種的主體發展都賦予其內在的價值與意義,是人之所以為人的重要基礎,如果抹煞了人性尊嚴,也就扼殺了人的存在意義。古往今來,不論中外,歷史上充滿了許許多多與各式各樣的人權運動,都對創造一個現代的理想人權環境奠定紮實的基礎。經由這些人權運動,我們不僅可以看到人們在現實世界所經歷的各式各樣的苦難,也可以看到為了追求理想而展現的人性崇高價值。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  然而,在人權運動所伸張的人權理念之下,現代人權的發展更需要從具體而微的日常生活之中來體察,特別是現代公民的權利意識也必須落實在具體的社會實踐之中。惟有如此,一來才可以使那些高舉的人權理念與價值展現為具體的社會生活,二來也才可以帶動並發展全社會的人權價值體系,並朝向一個更臻於人性尊嚴理想的社會建設道路前進。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  從現代人權的建設與保護的角度看,日常生活中的微觀人權所涉及的領域至少包括了在法律領域、道德領域與倫理領域三個社會實踐層面所交織而成的公共生活。而共同構築在這三個領域之上的普遍原則即是人性發展所強調的人性尊嚴。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  人性尊嚴在最根本的意義上即是強調人做為一個主體,其本身即具有內在的價值。我們不能把人當做工具來看待。我們不能否認在人的社會實踐之中,所從事的各種行為都有其多重的目的,有些是與外在的價值追求有關,例如追求財富、名位、健康、幸福等,而有些則是與行為本身的自身內在價值有關,例如信守諾言、樂善好施的助人行為等。外在的價值追求是將人的行為視為達到目的的手段,而內在的價值則是不以行為以外的目的來論斷,人的行為本身即具有人性開展的目的性,也就是人基於自己生命發展的需要所展現的行為。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  由於在人群社會的生活之中,個人無法脫離社會而離群索居。因此,人的社會生活即需要在兼顧自身的人性尊嚴與生命發展的情形下,還同時要顧及他人的人性尊嚴與生命發展。這就使得個人在開展自己的生命歷程時,必須兼而從人自身的內在需要、人與人之間的關係發展等角度,多面向的思考人性尊嚴的意義,如此方能落實人權的觀念與價值,並進而促進人權的保障。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  從人權的保障機制來看,法律、道德與倫理是三個相互關聯的重要面向。就法律層面而言,強調的是國家與社會的外在約制,這種約制透過立法機關立法程序所完成的法律,建立出一套保障與維護人權的體系,如有違反法律者即應受到司法的制裁。人權的法律保障機制是最有效也最能立竿見影的方式。然而,形式上的成文法律條文是否即能與現代人權的發展觀念與時俱進,還需要社會上來自於公民所具有的法意識與權利意識才能具體實踐。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  就道德層面而言,強調的是個人自我的內在規範,也就是每一個人在面對自我的人格發展時,展現為有意識的自我約制。約制的目的不在於限制人格發展與生命經驗的開展。相反地,人權的道德意識強調的個人對人性尊嚴的價值體系具有一定的定位,在這個價值體系的定位之下,形成個人人格的整體風範,並從而樹立出個人有所為與有所不為的準繩。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  就倫理層面而言,強調的則是人群與人際之間互動的規範,也就是在人與人的互動與彼此建立的關係之間,存在著一種內在的彼此約制,這種約制涉及人我關係的建立,也就是將個人置於社會關係下所建立的價值定位。人權的倫理意識即是在於透過這種人際之間的倫理網絡,尋求將個人人性尊嚴的開展與整體社會人群的發展結合成一個共同體,從而創建出現代人權所不可忽視的群性價值。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  我們隨時可以從日常生活的社會實踐中發現人權的具體內涵,舉凡現代人權的各種內涵都可以從法律、道德與倫理等角度來思考其意義與價值。特別是在當今快速變遷的社會中,各種多元社會價值衝突的問題與日俱增,因此,如何從人權的角度,重新省視生活中所存在各種微觀人權,並分別從法律層面、道德層面與倫理層面等三個角度,尋求一個整全與和諧的發展空間,實為現今人權觀念發展與落實的重要課題。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">伍.人權運動與人性尊嚴的開展:案例分析<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">一.美國的黑人民權運動<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  眾所週知,美國在人權方面最嚴重的問題就是種族歧視的問題。美國白種人對其他民族所存有的偏見,根源於歐洲人對美洲大陸的發現與殖民。為了生存,歷史上美國白人對於不同種族、文化、語言、宗教信仰的民族,採取過歧視、奴役與排斥的各種手段。這其中又以黑人所遭遇的不公平對待最具有代表性。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  一八六一年至一八六五年所爆發的南北戰爭(<span lang="EN-US">Civil War</span>)就是為了解放黑奴而產生的內戰。雖然當時的美國總統林肯(<span lang="EN-US">Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1865</span>)成功的解放黑奴,廢除了蓄奴制度,但郤沒能解決來自於社會與文化上的種族歧視問題。在當時,黑人不僅沒有與白人同等的選舉權,在學校、火車、餐廳、休閒娛樂等公共場所都實行著種族隔離政策。黑人不僅無法與白人享有同等的待遇,也會遭受白人的羞辱與毆打,甚且人身安全都無法確保。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  一九一0年開始,美國的教育與社會工作者組織了「全國有色人種協會」,開始為爭取黑人的權利而奮鬥。一九五0年代,反種族隔離的運動開始風起雲湧。一九五四年,蒙哥馬利市的一位黑人婦女因為拒絕在公車上讓位給白人而被捕,結果引發了全國性的黑人民權運動。當時在黑人民權領袖金恩(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Martin Luther King Jr., 1929-1968</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">)的領導下,發起抵制乘車的運動,結果喚起了各界對種族隔離政策的反思。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">黑白種族衝突的事件日益爆發,為消除種族歧視的遊行隨處可見。一九六三年八月二十八日,黑人民權運動於華盛頓林肯紀念堂舉行集會。金恩博士對二十萬人發表了一場扣人心弦的著名演說,題為《我有一個夢》(<span lang="EN-US">I have a dream</span>)。這場鏗鏘有力的演說成為黑人民權運動的里程碑。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">他提到:「美國的締造者於草擬憲法與獨立宣言時,曾向每一個美國人許下承諾,他們承諾給所有人以生存、自由和追求幸福的不可剝奪的權利。然而,就有色人種而言,美國顯然沒有實踐他的諾言。美國沒有履行這項神聖的義務,只是給黑人開了一張空頭支票。」「今天我們要求將支票兌現,這張支票將給我們寶貴的自由和正義的保障。」「我夢想有一天,這個國家會站立起來,真正實現其信條的真諦,人人生而平等,這是不言而喻的真理。」「我夢想有一天,我的四個孩子將在一個不是以他們的膚色,而是以他們的品格優劣來評價他們的國度裏生活。」「如果美國要成為一個偉大的國家,這個夢想必須實現。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  在金恩領導的民權運動影響之下,一九六四年美國國會終於通過〈民權法案〉,宣告在公共場所的種族隔離政策為非法。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  <span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">二.中國的民主運動<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  中國自清末以來,由於受到西方列強船堅砲利的侵略,面臨了政治、經濟的各種壓迫而出現民族生存與發展的危機。當時的中國知識份子亟力思索救亡圖存之道,主要的救國途徑分為兩派,一派是以康有為、梁啟超等人為代表的「君主立憲派」,希望仿日本明治維新的方式,以漸進改革的道路來挽救國家的危亡;另一派則是以孫中山、黃興為代表的革命派,採取革命的手段,澈底地摧毀封建帝制,而代之以民主共和的憲政制度來因應西方現代化的挑戰。其結果革命派以推翻滿清,建立民國而走入中國邁向現代的建設。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  在革命的過程中,歷經挫敗,其中知識份子犠牲小我以完成大我的精神,為國家民族的存續奉獻了生命。茲以黃花岡七十二烈士中的林覺民(<span lang="EN-US">1887-1911</span>)為例。他在〈與妻訣別書〉中寫到:<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 27pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">「</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">意映卿卿如晤:吾今以此書與汝永別矣!吾作此書,淚珠和筆墨齊下,不能竟書而欲擱筆!又恐汝不察吾衷,謂吾忍舍汝而死,謂吾不知汝之不欲吾死也,故遂忍悲為汝言之。」 <span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 27pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">「吾至愛汝,即此愛汝一念,使吾勇於就死也。吾自遇汝以來,常願天下有情人都成眷屬;然遍地腥羶,滿街狼犬,稱心快意,幾家能夠?語云:「仁者老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼。」吾充吾愛汝之心,助天下人愛其所愛,所以敢先汝而死,不顧汝也。汝體吾此心,於啼泣之餘,亦以天下人為念,當亦樂犧牲吾身與汝身之福利,為天下人謀永福也。汝其勿悲!」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 28.2pt 0pt 27pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; mso-para-margin-left: 2.25gd; mso-para-margin-top: 0cm; mso-para-margin-right: 2.35gd; mso-para-margin-bottom: .0001pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">「</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">吾愛汝至。汝幸而偶我,又何不幸而生今日之中國!吾幸而得汝,又何不幸而生今日之中國,卒不忍獨善其身!嗟夫!紙短情長,所未盡者尚有萬千,汝可以模擬得之。吾今不能見汝矣!汝不能舍我,其時時於夢中得我乎!一慟!」</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 10pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 1.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"> 林覺民代表了當時中國無數為追求國家的強盛而付出寶貴生命的知識份子典型。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 10pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 1.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"> 民國八年,以北京大學為首的知識份子發起了「五四運動」,以「德先生」與「賽先生」為號召,揭櫫「民主」(<span lang="EN-US">democracy</span>)與「科學」(<span lang="EN-US">science</span>)來作為追求中國現代化道路的指標,結果形成一場影響至遠的愛國與新文化運動。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 10pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 1.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"> 七十年後,一九八九年四月,為悼念中共前總理胡耀邦,以北京市民與學生為主的民眾群聚天安門廣場靜坐,提出反貪污、反特權、反官倒的口號,結果引發一場反政府的民主運動。在這場名為「八九民運」的愛國民主運動中,天安門廣場曾經聚集超過數十萬的群眾,不僅帶動中國大陸全國各地的民主運動,也深深吸引著世界各國的注意。這場運動於六月四日中共以軍隊坦克血腥鎮壓而流血告終,再為中國知識份子獻身於民主人權的理想留下歷史的見證。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">三.兒童人權運動<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoBodyTextIndent2" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt"><span class="c11"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; letter-spacing: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: sө; mso-hansi-font-family: sө">兒童做為一個人權關注的議題,在我國是最近幾年來的事情。在中國傳統文化的知識領域中,兒童並不被人文社會科學知識視為探討的主要對象,另一方面在社會生活層面上,兒童也不被視為具有人格的主體而成為大眾關切的焦點。此外,兒童也不像其他社會弱勢團體如婦女、殘障人士、勞工等均有自身利益的代言人來為自己的權益發聲,因此,兒童人權在我國的發展就較為緩慢。</span></span><span class="c11"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; letter-spacing: 0pt"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span class="c11"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; letter-spacing: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: sө; mso-hansi-font-family: sө">台灣最早關切兒童議題的應算是兒童福利聯盟,他們從協尋失蹤兒開始,呼籲重視失蹤兒童的社會問題,從而帶動社會大眾關切失蹤兒所引發的一連串涉及兒童權益的課題,從而使兒童人權的發展開始受到重視,如今包括兒童的受虐問題、福利問題、親子關係等問題也逐漸被大家所關切。</span></span><span class="c11"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; letter-spacing: 0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span class="c11"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; letter-spacing: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: sө; mso-hansi-font-family: sө">雖然我國目前有《兒童福利法》的立法及各種社會上有許多民間基金會來推動兒童人權,但平實地說,我國兒童人權的發展較之其他歐美先進國家對兒童所給予的地位及具體的措施等,則仍有許多努力和改善的空間。</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體">  一般而言,</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: sө; mso-hansi-font-family: sө">兒童之所以很容易受到忽略,其實與國家發展的程度具有密不可分的關係。此所以低度發展或落後的國家,其對兒童的重視就遠不如高度發展與先進的國家,因此,對兒童人權的重視與否,可以說是衡量一個國家或社會文明發展程度的重要指標。此外,一個社會之中,兒童的人格的健全與否,對於整個社會未來是否安定與進步也具有密不可分的關係。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  自一九二四年國際聯盟發表〈日內瓦兒童權利宣言〉以來,兒童權益就成為國際人權討論議題中不可忽視的課題。然而,兒童人權獲得較普遍的重視則要到一九八九年聯合國通過《兒童權利公約》之後,才開始讓兒童權利的保護成為各國國內立法上所重視的對象。目前,我國因為不是聯合國的會員國,所以仍然未能簽署這項國際公約。不過,包括政府及民間二十多個團體所組織的</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「台灣加入聯合國兒童權利公約推動聯盟」,正為弘揚兒童人權議題而積極努力之中。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">  《兒童權利公約》有四項基本原則,包括:一、無差別歧視原則;二、兒童最大利益原則;三、生存與發展兼具原則;四、參與兒童權利原則。基本上,從性質上來說,兒童人權實包括「基本權利」與「特殊權利」兩個面向,前者「基本權利」如:生存權、人身自由權、人格權、受教育權、平等權、隱私權等,在這方面,兒童所享的人權與成人並無分軒輊;後者「特殊權利」如:受撫養權、父母保護權、家庭成長權、優先受助權、減免刑責權、乃至遊戲權等,都是從兒童身心發展的需要出發,考慮到兒童所必需得到的特別照顧與保護等。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">  因此,兒童人權在內容上就呈現了多元的內涵,並且會依社會環境的變化而呈現不同的面貌。但不管如何,都與尊重兒童的生命價值,並促使其人格得以健全發展為核心。</span><font face="新細明體" size="3"> </font><div style="mso-element: footnote-list"><br clear="all" />&nbsp;</div>
繼續閱讀

我國對人權保障的實務議題1/張國聖老師

<p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3">我國對人權保障的實務議題<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></font></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: center"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><font size="3">張國聖</font></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 140pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 14.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><table class="MsoNormalTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 1.4pt 0cm 1.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext"><tbody><tr style="height: 17.1pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><td valign="top" width="86" style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 1.4pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 1.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 64.4pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; height: 17.1pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">教學目標<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">一.瞭解人權觀念所具有的普遍性價值。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">二.瞭解人權的意義及其在日常生活中所展現的各種內涵。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">三.從法律、道德與倫理的角度來探討人權的多面向意義。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">四.培養對人權與人道關懷的人文情懷。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">五.奠定以人文精神檢視人生發展與整合跨領域學術知識的基礎。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoBodyTextIndent" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 37.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="標楷體">關鍵詞:人權、人文精神、生命價值、文藝復興、啟蒙運動、天賦人權、社會主義、民族自決、生命權、自由權、社會權、經濟權、文化權、發展權<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></font></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 37.5pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -37.5pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: -3.75"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">壹.前言<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">  「人權」此一概念可以說是當代社會中最具重要而有影響力的觀念之一,然而,要如何才能正確地理解人權的意義與價值,郤是一件表面上看似容易但實質上郤又深具複雜性的一件事。就「人權」此一觀念所具有的重要影響力來看,放眼今日世界,不管怎麼樣的政治體制與社會制度,從極權的專制統治國家到自由開放的民主國家,可以說沒有一個國家或是政權敢於承認自己不重視人權的,儘管其各自所持有的人權觀具有很大的差異。對當今的世人而言,人權已經成為具有崇高價值、所向披靡的思想觀念。但就人權實踐的角度看,「人權」概念所具有的複雜性又常常影響我們對人權意義的理解,以及對世界各國人權發展的認知圖像。我們經常遇到的對比經驗是,即便是政治上的獨裁統治者,也經常會以捍衛民族或國家的生存發展權利來做為伸張人權的標竿,儘管其獨裁統治手段壓抑著人民在個人自由和基本人權方面的發展;而另一方面,在自由開放的民主社會中,對基本人權的法制保障儘管較為健全,但社會上各種與人權攸關的議題又常常成為社會運動或政治爭執的焦點。因此,要如何理解人權的意義,並進一步地思索其對人類社會發展的重要價值,就必須將其置於日常生活的具體實踐當中來考察,特別是從人性尊嚴與人格發展的角度,結合人文精神與生命價值的發揚來看待,才能彰顯人權在當今世界所具有的無上影響力量。為了彰顯人權在現代生活中多面向的具體內容與意涵,本文即從法律、道德與倫理三個層面的對話角度來探討現代人權的價值。</span><font face="新細明體" size="3"> </font><div style="mso-element: footnote-list"><br /><br /><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">貳.人權的意義及其發展歷程<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  人權就其基本的意義而言,即指「人的權利」(<span lang="EN-US">Human Rights</span>),是以具有人的資格而享有的權利;也就是說,凡屬人類,具備人格,也就享有此種權利,不因其種族、背景、所處之地域、環境與時間的不同而有所差異。然而,人權的內涵則是社會環境與時代的產物,亦即在不同的社會背景與不同的時代文化之下,會產生不同的人權觀念內容。換句話說,在今天看來,人權雖然已經被大家視為「與生俱來的」、「不可被剝奪的」、「內屬於人的存在」的基本權利,對人權的重視也被視為是一種「普世的價值」,具有超越地域、文化與種族差異的普遍性意義。這種「普世的人權觀」其實是經過人類歷史漫長歲月的演進才發展得來的,這其中包括了思想家們在觀念上的啟迪和理論上的貢獻,也包括了許許多多的社會與政治運動的實踐,才能累積成今日我們關於人權的理想和現代社會對人權價值堅定不移的信念。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  從人權觀念的發展歷程來看,現代人權的觀念啟迪主要是來自於西方的,特別是源自於十五、十六世紀歐洲的文藝復興運動,歷經十七、十八世紀的啟蒙運動及受到西方平等自由主義和民主思想的傳統影響。以下分四個階段來說明人權的由來及其發展歷程:<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">一.歐洲文藝復興運動和人權思想的萌芽<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  歐洲的文藝復興運動無論是在時間、空間與影響的層面來說,其意義都是深刻而非凡的。在時間的序列上,文藝復興運動長達三個世紀之久,從十四世紀前後在意大利醞釀,到十五、十六世紀達到極盛的發展。在空間的範圍上,從意大利向北傳播,包括德國、法國、英國、西班牙、荷蘭等國家都捲進其中。影響的層面包括文學、藝術、詩歌、繪畫、戲劇、音樂、建築與人文科學等各個領域,留下了非常豐富的文化與精神資產。扼要的說,文藝復興運動以復興豐富燦爛的古希臘與羅馬的文化為號召,企圖以伸張希臘古典文化中的人道主義與人文精神來對抗中世紀歐洲的神權思想。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  基督教的神權思想主宰了西歐中世紀長達近<span lang="EN-US">1100</span>多年(約<span lang="EN-US">395-1500</span>)的時間,歷史上被稱為「黑暗的世紀」,其內涵即在於教會的神權思想抬高神而貶低人,聲稱人帶有原罪,終其一生都必須透過禁欲、遵守戒律與苦行來贖罪,如此在死後才能獲得洗滌罪愆,步入的解脫的天國而與神同在。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  文藝復興運動在思想上即是針對源自於中世紀歐洲的神權思想及其對人性的各種壓抑而生的,並且在這個背景之下孕育出現代人權的萌芽。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">以第一次提出「人權」概念的但丁(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; letter-spacing: 1.5pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Dante Alighieri</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; letter-spacing: 1.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">為例。但丁(<span lang="EN-US">1265-1321</span>)是意大利詩人,文藝復興運動的先驅,其代表性的作品是長篇史詩《神曲》與《帝制論》。他在著作中強調上帝創造萬物給予人類的最大恩賜即是人的意志自由,人類只有依憑意志自由才能享受如天堂般地快樂,而要使人的才智充分發揮,實現和平與正義的理想王國,就必須以人權為基礎。換言之,以但丁為代表的文藝復興運動,所展現的是一種以人道反對神道、以理性反對信仰、以人權反對神權的運動。而貫穿文藝復興運動的核心則是以個人主義為基礎的人文精神,它強調人的理性能力並且呼籲要正視人的現實需要。強調人的理性能力即是要擺脫教會對人們思想的束縛,反對神權對人權的壓抑;呼籲要正視人的需要即是包括人的自由、尊嚴、價值、平等、幸福等源自於人性內在的需要。因此,個人自由、個人權利與個性解放即成為人文精神與人道主義發展的主軸,也就是說,文藝復興運動主張「人是萬物的尺度」,提倡各種恢復以人為本的價值,而這種人文精神可以說是現代人權思想的啟蒙。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">二.歐洲啟蒙運動與第一代人權運動的發展<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  啟蒙運動是繼文藝復興運動之後歐洲另一場反對教會神權宰制的思想解放運動,這場運動不僅孕育出「天賦人權」的政治哲學思想,更為現代人權的制度性保障奠定了理論基礎。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  啟蒙運動對現代人權發展的最重要貢獻在於提供了理論的基礎,這主要表現在「自然權利說」與「社會權利說」兩個方面的思想淵源,主要的代表思想家包括荷蘭的格勞秀斯(<span lang="EN-US">Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645</span>)、斯賓諾莎(<span lang="EN-US">B. B. de Spinoza, 1632-1677</span>)、英國的霍布斯(<span lang="EN-US">Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679</span>)和洛克(<span lang="EN-US">John Locke, 1632-1704</span>)、還有法國的盧梭(<span lang="EN-US">Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1778</span>)等。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">  首先就「自然權利說」來看,強調在國家未形成以前,人類生活在一種沒有公共權力支配的自然狀態(<span lang="EN-US">the state of nature</span>)中,既沒有政府也沒有法律,因此人人都有相同的自然權利(<span lang="EN-US">natural right</span>),以設法維持自己的安全與生存。然而,在自然狀態之下,由於人性的自私自利,使得在人與人的互相爭鬥之中,個人的生存權利難以獲得保障,因此,為<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 78.0pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">了避免死亡與苦難,基於人的理性作用,建立了一種自然狀態下的秩序,這個秩序即是所謂的「自然法」(<span lang="EN-US">the law of nature</span>)。也就是說,人類為了維持自己的生存,確立了人們必須保證彼此的生存權利與生命價值,除了建立人具有追求生存的天賦權利外,亦確立了人們不得為了自己的生存而去犠牲、傷害他人的生命。這種「自然法」不僅維持人類的共存,更確立了生存權、自由權和財產權等作為人權保障的最主要內涵,而其所蘊涵的「天賦人權」思想更使人權成為不可放棄與不可轉讓的基本權利,任何政府對自然法與自然權利的尊重都成為自身統治合法性的主要來源,如有違逆,人們便有權加以反抗與討伐。在這個意義上,可以說,「天賦人權」思想催生被壓迫者反抗專制獨裁統治的民主運動,對當代自由民主的發展奠定了基礎。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 78.0pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  其次就「社會權利說」來看,最具代表性的是盧梭的「社會契約論」(<span lang="EN-US">the theory of social contract</span>)的主張。他強調人類在自然狀態下的權利係基於本能的需要,還不是真正的權利,必須彼此之間訂立契約,組織社會,互相約束,才可以從自然狀態下脫離,這即是其提出「社會契約」的立論依據。基於社會契約,人們放棄了源於自然狀態的自然權利,建立了社會並且成為社會的成員,同時從社會中獲得了權利,這種權利才是人權的依據。在盧梭看來,這種社會契約得以成立的基本條件是:「每個人都把自己及其所有的一切權利都讓給全體社會,因為假若每個人都絕對地放棄了個人權利,那對任何人都是相同的條件,因此,任誰也不會妨害他人。」「每個人都把自己交給全體,就等於並未交給任何人。」(<span lang="EN-US">&rdquo;Social Contract&rdquo;,Bk.I,Chap.VI</span>)也就是說,在社會契約論的觀點之下,每個人彼此之間訂立契約組成社會,每個人都服從於社會全體,也就等於每個人服從自己,雖然失去自然權利的自由,但從重新獲文明的自由(<span lang="EN-US">civil liberty</span>)。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 78.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">在「社會權利說」看來,人權的根據不是自然法,而是基於社會的全意志(<span lang="EN-US">general will</span>),全意志是社會全體成員基於共同的利益,針對共同的目標,追求共同的幸福所具有的意志。社會成員的個人權利必須服從基於代表社會全意志的整體主權,每個人的自由、平等、財產等人權是透過以全意志為基礎的法律所展現來的。因此,人權是社會全意志也是社會法律的產物,並且透過代表社會全意志的法律來加以確立和保障。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 78.0pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  不論是「自然權利說」或是「社會權利說」,都對現代人權的發展起來奠基的作用。由啟蒙運動所開展的「天賦人權」不僅打破了「君權神授」的謎思,其所確立人們具有不可被剝奪及不可轉讓的生命、自由與財產的權利,成為人權發展史上的第一代人權觀,影響所及,包括一七八九年法國大革命所頒布的《人權宣言》(<span lang="EN-US">Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen</span>)以及一七七六年美國的《獨立宣言》(<span lang="EN-US">The Declaration of Independence</span>)都受到這股思潮的直接洗禮。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 78.0pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  以美國的《獨立宣言》為例,其在主旨中即強調「所有的人生而平等,&ldquo;造物主&rdquo;賦予他們若干不可出讓的權利,其中包括生命權、自由權和追求幸福的權利。為了保障這些權利,人類才在他們中間建立政府,而政府之正當權力是經由被統治者的同意而產生的。任何政府如果損害這些目的,人民便有權利加以改變或廢除它,以建立一個新的政府。而新政府所依據的原則和用以組織其權力的方式,必項是在人民看來最能夠促進他們的安全和幸福的。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  此外,「社會權利說」對發展「公民與政治權利」的現代人權思想也起了激勵的作用,包括聯合國一九四八通過的《世界人權宣言》(<span lang="EN-US">Universal Declaration of Human Rights</span>)及一九六六年通過的《公民和政治權利國際公約》(<span lang="EN-US">International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights</span>)等都受到直接的影響。簡言之,源於啟蒙運動的人權思想在很長的一段時間成為人權發展史上的經典理論。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">三.社會主義運動與第二代人權運動的發展<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">  十九世紀開始,由於受到社會主義思潮及發生於西歐國家(主要是法國、德國等國)的勞工運動的影響,對那些存在於自由經濟體制的資本主義社會所產生的貧富懸殊、階級壓迫的現象進行了反思和批判。社會主義思潮的代表性人物如法國的聖西門(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">C. H. R. Saint-Simen</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">,1760-1825</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">)、傅立葉(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">F. M. C. Fourier</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">,1772-1837</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">)、英國的歐文(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">Owen</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">,1772-1837</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">)和德國的馬克思(<span lang="EN-US">Karl H. Marx,1918-1983</span>)等人,他們共同聚焦於資本主義經濟體制所存在的剝削問題以及由此而生的社會資源分配不均等的現象。他們批判這<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">種存在於資本主義社會的不公和不義,最具代表性的觀點即是認為:那些佔社會人口絕大多數的勞動者,儘管其具有許多才能,對社會的勞動力參與與貢獻也最多,但郤只能分享整體社會資源的很小部份;而那些居統治與主宰地位的資本家,儘管其才能低劣,他們不必辛勤勞動,郤可以掌控著政治權力與分享整體社會的絕大部份資源。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">社會主義思想家論證這種剝削現象係源之資本主義的政治、經濟及文化制度,也就是說,儘管資本主義國家強調自由與平等,但這種自由與平等是帶有階級色彩的自由,反映的是統治階級的利益,而不是立基於人性與道德發展的自由與平等。因此,社會主義思想家特別重視經濟、社會與文化的權利。換句話說,在社會主義陣營看來,人權的產生、發展與實現,都必須建立在一定的社會經濟與文化的條件之上。如果沒有相應的社會、經濟與文化條件的配合,人權的理想也只是空中閣樓,無法於現實社會中實現。所以,要實踐人權主張,就必須要創造與其相應的社會、經濟與文化的條件。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  來自於社會主義思潮對社會、經濟與文化人權的強調,使得西歐各國的勞工開始團結起來,他們籌組各式各樣的工會組織,並透過各種勞工運動,諸如演講、集會、遊行、罷工等手段,爭取較好的僱傭與勞動條件,諸如最高工時、最低工資、休假權、改善勞動環境、降低失業率、工作傷害的救濟與補償等要求。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  從十九世紀開始,一直到第二次世界大戰結束,這段時間受到社會主義思潮的影響,人權的觀念發展集中在社會、經濟與文化等方面權利的伸張,這是第二代人權的特色。在這個脈絡之下,人權的觀念內涵開始由第一代人權對個人權利的追求和保障,進一步地發展到以群體、階級為基礎的權利內涵,並進一步地將人權的意義置於政治、經濟、社會與文化的制度脈絡中來審查。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第二代人權觀的發展,影響所及,包括一九四五年通過的《聯合國憲章》(<span lang="EN-US">Charter of the United Nations</span>)、一九四八年通過的《世界人權宣言》(<span lang="EN-US">Universal Declaration of Human Rights</span>)、一九六六年通過的《經濟社會暨文化權利國際公約》(<span lang="EN-US">International Covenant on Economic, Social and Culture Rights</span>)等,都可以看到其相關的內涵。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">四.民族自決運動與第三代人權運動的發展<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  自第一次世界大戰結束之後,由於受到美國總統威爾遜(<span lang="EN-US">T.W. Wilson, 1856-1924</span>)提出「民族自決」(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Self-Determination of Nations</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">)口號的影響,戰後在歐洲出現了許多新興的國家,包括波蘭(<span lang="EN-US">Poland</span>)、捷克(<span lang="EN-US">Czech</span>)、匈牙利(<span lang="EN-US">Hungary</span>)、奧地利(<span lang="EN-US">Austria</span>)、芬蘭(<span lang="EN-US">Finland</span>)、冰島(<span lang="EN-US">Iceland</span>)、烏克蘭(<span lang="EN-US">Ukraine</span>)、愛沙尼亞(<span lang="EN-US">Estonia</span>)、拉脫維亞(<span lang="EN-US">Latvia</span>)與立陶宛(<span lang="EN-US">Lithuania</span>)等。然而各民族之間長久以來所存在的歷史糾葛問題,並沒有隨著戰爭而結束。這種民族問題主要表現在兩個方面,一個方面是就國家內部的民族紛爭而言,另一個方面則是就民族國家所面臨的外部壓迫而言。前者係指各國境內少數民族往往因為的受到種族、宗教、語文乃至於政治和經濟地位的歧視和迫害,而不斷進行抗爭,使得民族問題成為紛爭的火藥庫。後者係指受到帝國主義與殖民主義的影響,許多被壓迫國家運用民族主義的號召來對抗外來的侵略和壓迫,以尋求獨立自主的發展道路。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">這股民族主義的浪潮,經由第二次世界大戰的結束而影響擴及至廣大的亞洲、非洲和拉丁美洲地區。雖經冷戰時代而稍趨緩和,但隨著一九八九年開始一系列東歐共產政權的傾頹和蘇聯的解體,國際社會交織著「統合主義」與「分離主義」兩種發展的面貌,使各個民<p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">族國家之間開始探索新的互動關係,從而促使民族自決問題從作為一個國際政治的「原則」而提昇至具有重要內涵的「權利」。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  一九四八年聯合國通過《世界人權宣言》時還沒有提到「民族自決權」,直到一九五二年第七屆聯合國大會通過〈關於人民與民族自決權的決議〉,在其中提到:「人民與民族應先享有自決權,然後才能保證享有一切基本人權。」此後,在一系列的聯合國文件中都可以看到這類的內涵,可以說民族自決權已開始成為國際社會普遍接受的人權準則。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">  民族自決權成為人權的內涵,使人權觀念的發展超越了個人、階級群體而走向民族,甚至超越了國家的範疇,而走向「集體人權」的概念,而成為第三代人權的重要特色。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">受到民族自決權成為人權重要內涵的啟發,被殖民國家與受壓迫民族在尋求邁向獨立自主的過程中,由於受到既定的國際政治經濟結構與主流的強權政治文化的制約而面臨許多的不公平待遇,使得民族與國家的發展受到了許多的限制。在這樣的基礎上,許多開發中國家進一步地提出了「發展權」的觀念,並藉此來建立一個和平、穩定、發展的國際政治經濟新秩序。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">一九七八年,聯合國大會通過〈關於發展權的決議〉,一九八六年通過〈發展權利宣言〉,確立了發展權成為不可被剝奪的人權內涵。發展權的出現,使人們更普遍地將人類全體共同面臨的問題作為能否永續生存發展的課題來思考。於是包括核子武器的戰爭威脅、人口爆炸與糧食短缺的威脅、環境污染與生態失衡的危機、天然資源的耗竭與能源短缺的危機、資訊與科技發展對人類的衝擊、重大疾病擴散的控制乃至於恐怖主義對人類文明與生存的挑戰等等,都成為關係人類共同生存與發展所不得不面對的議題。因此,在這樣的影響之下,由發展權引伸出系列關於集體人權的新內涵,包括和平權、環境權、健康權、人類共同遺產權等,並且隨著人們進行跨國性的區域與國際合作而逐漸開展出新的人權價值。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">以環境權為例,由於科技的高度發展,國際經濟活動與人群互動關係日益頻繁與複雜,的工業污染與人類對自然生態的摧殘也日益昇高,處此情形之下,人類共同面臨所共處的「地球村」(<span lang="EN-US">global village</span>)的環境惡化危機,因此高度強調重視人類發展生機的共同意識。一九七二年,聯合國於瑞典斯德哥爾摩召開人類環境會議,會後並提出〈人類環境宣言〉(<span lang="EN-US">Declaration on the Human Environment</span>),在其中即強調「環境對於人類的幸福和對於享受的基本人權,甚至生存權利本身,都是必不可少的。」「保護和改善人類環境是關係到全世界各國人民的幸福和經濟發展的重要問題,也是全世界各國人民的迫切希望和各國政府的責任。」<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">第三代人權觀念的發展,使得人們對人權的討論面臨了一個新的向度,它不僅涉及到個人的權利,同時也涉及到人類全體的共同權利,甚至可以說影響到人類後代子孫的權利。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: 20pt; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體">從歐洲文藝復興運動對人權觀念的啟迪開始,經由「三代人權」的發展,使人權的內涵呈現了多元而複雜的面貌。我們可以這樣說,從人權觀念的演變過程來看,可以說是呈現人類整體文明的發展歷程;而從人類發展史的角度看,又恰好是一部由人權運動所展現的人文精神與生命價值的發揚歷程。<span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 標楷體"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify">&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p></span></span></span></div>
繼續閱讀

整合講座1 :隱私權與個人資料保護 /廖緯民老師

<p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center; mso-pagination: widow-orphan"><b><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt">隱私權與個人資料保護 <span lang="EN-US">-- </span></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">引言稿</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center"><span style="font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><font size="3">廖 緯 民</font></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman" size="3">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權為當代文化與法學上的熱門議題。尤其邁入二十世紀之後,人與人之交互關係日趨多樣,大眾傳播媒體之發展一日千里,使得個人生活動輒遭到外力干擾。於此情況下隱私權觀念逐漸受到重視,終而成為憲法保障的人格權</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。「隱私權」此一新生權利領域的建構,涉及二個主要之核心價值:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(1)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">自主性</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(autonomy)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">:其攸關個人的自治空間以及其自我管理之問題;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(2)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">個體尊嚴性</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">(dignity)</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">:其涉及參與群體生活,在群體生活中尋求定位、予以實現之問題。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權涉及人民新的生命領域與生活空間,如未能提舉其內在正當性與合理性,不僅可能危害社會,更可能斲傷當事人個體,不可不慎。隱私權的觀念,在不同的社會、種族、宗教,甚至個人之間,均可能出現極大之差異</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。我國在憲法、行政法、刑法與民法上各種有關隱私權的學說逐次建構的過程中,眾說紛紜,甚且在實務推動上顯現猶疑不前之現象;引入隱私權概念之困難及複雜可見一般。然而細繹傳統思想,亦可追索出主要學派針對「獨」的闡釋,其實可以對照並融合源自西方的現代隱私權法律概念。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">首先,儒家思想中「慎獨」概念歷來廣受援引。在儒家止於至善的倫理目標與道德極致下,「獨」與「隱」被視為必須克服的誘惑。這種思想固非直接否定隱私,卻隱含著對「獨」與「隱」的不放心。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">然而,最新文獻顯示:「慎獨」觀念別有深意:「獨」之原義應為「道體」;「慎獨」之原義應為「珍愛獨立觀看道體」。換言之,「慎獨」是指內心的專注、專一,是「獨立追求道體」。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">而道家中莊子所描繪的「見獨」,與儒家的「慎獨」在內容上雖然有所不同,但就二者指涉內心的精神狀態而言,則是一致的。其頗類似於現象學中的先驗還原,即捨棄對世界的自然態度和固有看法,而回到純粹的先驗意識。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">就此,現代的隱私權利保護對我國傳統文化思想的新生產生輔成落實的積極意義;而戮力隱私權法制的法律人也同時參與了此一文化改造的前衛行列。反面而言,對「道體」的探究與追求也可以成為國家保護個人隱私的實質正當性依據。在此意義下,國家保護隱私的實質正當性,可以提升至文化高度;也在文化脈絡中尋得落實。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國「隱私權」法律概念之建立,迄今多援引西方學說與法制;本文以下簡介其發展軌跡與困境。其可大分為以下數端予以論述:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 2pt 20.4pt; text-indent: -20.4pt; line-height: 12pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 2pt 20.4pt; text-indent: -20.4pt; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康粗明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一、</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康粗明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">學 說</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「隱私」概念的探討在我國之歷來文化與社會生活中並不發達;近代以來「隱私權」的概念多由國外傳入,其中以美國法最常受國內文獻援引。隱私權在美國法上之發展,始於一八九</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'MS Mincho'">〇</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年由學者</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Samuel D. Warren</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">及</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Louis D. Brandeis</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">率先提出。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Warren</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">氏與</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Brandeis</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">氏共同於哈佛法律評論發表&ldquo;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">The Right to Privacy&rdquo; </font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">乙文,徵引普通法案例,主張應承認受侵權行為法保護的隱私權,而以「獨處不受他人干擾」為主要內容(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">the right to be let alone</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)。該文上世紀二十年代以後漸為各州法院接受,但也產生許多不具共同特徵的判決,而引發爭議。一九六</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'MS Mincho'">〇</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Prosser</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">教授的論文&ldquo;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Privacy&rdquo; </font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">對相關案例從事類型分析,歸納出四種不同之侵害隱私態樣</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">1.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">侵犯個人生活領域(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">intrusion upon seclusion or solitude, or into private affairs</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">);</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">2.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">使他人招致公眾誤解(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">publicity that places a person in a false light in the public eye</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">);</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">3.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">錯置他人識別表徵(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">misappropriation of one&rsquo;s name or likeness</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">);<br /></span><br />&nbsp;</p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l1 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">1.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">公開他人私事(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">publicity of a person&rsquo;s private life</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">)。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">前開分類後來納入侵權行為法整編(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Restatement of Torts</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">),成為通說;而國內學說則相繼引述此種分類</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。據此,國內有學者依據媒介標準,認為可將之區分為二種主要態樣者</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman"> <o:p></o:p></font></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">1.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「領域隱私」:即已侵入一般人通念中之「私人領域」,而產生侵犯個人之恥感或安全感者。就其事物之本質,可再細分為人身、物件與事務之領域。而其侵入型態亦可區分為直接以感官認知,或者以工具探測。此所謂之「私人領域」,應依社會通念而認定之。上述美國學說中之侵犯私生活或應屬之。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">2.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">「資訊隱私」:即依據資訊或資料,經由推論程序而造成人格身分之特定化,再進而影響該人人格特性(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">personal profile</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)之出現誤導。換言之,其前提著重在身分辨識(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">identification</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)之實現或其資訊錯誤之防免。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">由於隱私權概念的抽象性、隱晦性,而每一法律領域對隱私權保護的主旨與範圍亦不一致,亦會隨時代、時間、社會發展的成熟度而改變。即使在美國,晚近亦有學者</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><font face="Times New Roman">Ken Gormley</font></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">進一步分析隱私權的四個主要面向,而成為界定「隱私權」之重要見解</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">1.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">個人人格或特質之表達,即確定其為人類特質之權利。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">2.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">個人自治權。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">3.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">規範自身資訊及控制與其他人交往之能力。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo3; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><font face="Times New Roman">4.<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">秘密、匿名與獨處。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">此處提舉之「個人自治權」</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">顯示出一種更為抽象、但卻若有所指的積極性與實質性內涵;其與西方法律文化尊崇個體之脈絡似乎已有更高之連結。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 8pt 0cm 2pt 20.4pt; text-indent: -20.4pt; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康粗明體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">二、司法上之發展</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國司法體系很早即對「隱私權」之議題做出解釋,如法務部<st1:chsdate w:st="on" year="1982" month="7" day="26" islunardate="False" isrocdate="True">民國<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'">71</span>年<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'">7</span>月<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'">26</span>日</st1:chsdate>法律字第九一六八號函釋即曾出現「隱私權」之用語,將隱私等同秘密,認為屬於民法上的人格權</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。而近年來更是積極地做出許多的有權解釋、甚至立法。其相關之法律規定,則散佈於規範領域各異的個別法典之中,兼跨於如民法、刑法、行政法、訴訟法等之不同面向中</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。以下擇要就司法院大法官會議解釋、民法、刑法及電腦個人資料保護法之部分予以論述。以下簡單整理其內容與脈絡</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="a1" style="margin: 5pt 0cm 2pt 36pt; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l3 level1 lfo4; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0; mso-para-margin-left: 0gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康中黑體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">司法院大法官會議解釋</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 48pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 48.0pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">司法院大法官<st1:chsdate w:st="on" year="1992" month="3" day="13" islunardate="False" isrocdate="True">民國八十一年三月十三日</st1:chsdate>釋字第二九三號解釋,肯定隱私權屬憲法第二十二條人民之其他自由及權利,應受憲法之保障;惟其亦指出隱私權的保護並非絕對,為防止妨礙他人自由、避免緊急危難、維持社會秩序或增進公共利益之必要,得以法律限制之(憲法第二十三條參照)</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">。另司法院第一廳曾有研究意見認為,隱私遭受侵犯者,被害人得依民法第一八四條第一項後段規定請求賠償其非財產上損失</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">。然而<span style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">大法官會議<st1:chsdate w:st="on" year="2000" month="7" day="7" islunardate="False" isrocdate="True">民國八十九年七月七日</st1:chsdate>釋字第五</span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">〇</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">九</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">號解釋</span><font size="3"> </font>&nbsp;</p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">在強調言論自由之主旨下、卻似乎輾轉地抑制了隱私權觀念的進一步發展。第至<st1:chsdate w:st="on" year="2005" month="9" day="28" islunardate="False" isrocdate="True">民國九十四年九月二十八日</st1:chsdate>大法官會議釋字第六</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'MS Mincho'">〇</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">三</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">號解釋,則一舉提出「資訊隱私權」之概念,奠立了我國隱私權保護的重要新面向。</span><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 5pt 0cm 2pt 36pt; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0; mso-para-margin-left: 0gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康中黑體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">民 法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">以民事責任而論</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,民法債編修正前,並未明確以隱私作為保護客體。八十八年四月二日通過、八十九年五月實施的債編修正條文,於第一九五條第一項明文納入隱私,為慰撫金提供明確的請求權基 礎</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 5pt 0cm 2pt 36pt; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0; mso-para-margin-left: 0gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康中黑體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">刑 法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">刑法第二十八章妨害祕密之規定,處罰各種妨害祕密之行為,保護通信祕密、因業務或職務知悉或持有他人祕密、工商祕密,並藉此維護憲法第十二條保障之祕密通訊自由。八十六年之修正,除修正第三一五條,擴張其可罰性之範圍而成為妨害文件祕密罪外,並增訂第三一八條之一洩漏電腦祕密罪、第三一八條之二利用電腦或其相關設備而犯洩密罪之加重刑罰事由;八十八年之修正復增訂第三一五條之一窺視竊聽竊錄罪、第三一五條之二第一項便利窺視竊聽竊錄罪、第三一五條之二第二項製造散布販賣竊錄內容罪、第三一五條之三沒收竊錄內容之附著物及物品</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 5pt 0cm 2pt 36pt; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt; mso-char-indent-count: 0; mso-para-margin-left: 0gd"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 新細明體"></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康中黑體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">電腦處理個人資料保護法</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">為規範電腦處理個人資料,以避免人格權受侵害,並促進個人資料之合理使用,我國於八十四年八月十一日公布施行電腦處理個人資料保護法(下稱「個資法」),分為總則、公務機關之資料處理、非公務機關之資料處理、損害賠償及其他救濟、罰則與附則六章,共四十五條,除界定個人資料之意義以及資料本人所得行使之權利外,並就資料蒐集、資料處理與利用、相關責任及救濟等設有規定</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">;而其中同時規範民事責任、刑事罰則以及行政程序,頗値吾人注意。徵諸前述隱私概念之變遷,「個資法」之制定施行,可謂立法者已意識到隱私之概念從傳統消極不受他人干擾,擴張及於積極掌握所謂之個人資料之「資訊自決權」</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="a0" style="margin: 5pt 0cm 2pt 11.75pt; text-indent: -10.2pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-para-margin-left: .13gd"><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 華康中黑體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體">結論</span><font face="Times New Roman"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; mso-hansi-font-family: 標楷體"> --</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><br />l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我國「隱私權」之法律體制日益具體且發達;在其短短的二十年發展過程中,法律人的貢獻積極而具體。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-indent: -24pt; line-height: 12pt; mso-list: l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops: list 36.0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore"><br />l<span style="font: 7pt 'Times New Roman'">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">就「隱私權」做為一種新生人格權而言,民法之隱私概念似乎較著重上述「領域隱私」各種態樣之闡釋,而且呈現多種多樣的文化因素之探討。而刑法之規範則強調「秘密」之保護,尤其八十八年之修正將保護客體擴及個人「非公開之活動、言論或談話」,論者以為其已趨近歐美「隱私權」保護個人「私領域」的觀念,其刑度也大幅提高到三年或五年以下有期徒刑。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt"><o:p></o:p></span><br /><br /><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Wingdings; mso-bidi-font-family: Wingdings; mso-fareast-font-family: Wingdings"><span style="mso-list: Ignore">l</span></span>至於「資訊隱私」則在電腦處理個人資料保護法已有細密之規範;尤其「資訊隱私權」此一法律概念,更經<span style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">大法官會議釋字第六</span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'MS Mincho'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">〇</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">三號解釋明文予以提舉。</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">然而,「資訊隱私權」之保護,卻經常涉及技術背景與產業意義;因而個資法在此可能發揮其產業導引之功能。此一</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">ICT</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">產業發展與個資法的交互關係,攸關我國重大國家經濟利益與資訊社會之發展,足資特別注意</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: '新細明體','serif'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">。</span></p><div style="mso-element: footnote-list"><br clear="all" />&nbsp;</div>
繼續閱讀

整合講座1 :隱私權與個人資料保護-議程 /廖緯民老師

<span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;新細明體&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="font-size: medium"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: distribute-all-lines; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 16pt; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">教育部九十八年度法學教育教學研究創新計畫</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 16pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: distribute-all-lines; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; text-align: justify"><b><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">法律通識課程結合理論與實務之案例與對話教學模組整合型計畫</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: distribute-all-lines; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><b><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">整合講座</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">1</font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p><p style="text-justify: distribute-all-lines; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center">&nbsp;</p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><font size="3"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Arial Unicode MS'; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日期:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">98</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">10</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">月</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">05</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">星期一</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><font size="3"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">地點:萬能科技大學</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp; </font></span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">學生活動中心一樓</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> I101</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">室<br />主辦單位:萬能科技大學通識教育中心</span></font></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman" size="3">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; layout-grid-mode: char; line-height: 12pt; text-align: justify"><table class="MsoNormalTable" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="636" border="1" style="border-right: medium none; border-top: medium none; border-left: medium none; width: 477pt; border-bottom: medium none; border-collapse: collapse; mso-border-alt: double black 2.25pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 480; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .75pt solid black; mso-border-insidev: .75pt solid black"><tbody><tr style="height: 59.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"><td width="636" colspan="2" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: black 2.25pt double; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 477pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: double black 2.25pt; mso-border-bottom-alt: solid black .75pt"><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center"><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">議</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">程</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">表</span></b><b style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; text-transform: uppercase; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 59.2pt; mso-yfti-irow: 1"><td width="120" style="border-right: black 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.2pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: small"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">15:00~15:15</font></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"><o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td><td width="516" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 387pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 59.2pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: medium"><span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">總計畫主持人</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">-</font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">徐振雄老師</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 291.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 2"><td width="120" style="border-right: black 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 291.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: small"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">15:15~16:15</font></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"><o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td><td width="516" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 387pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 291.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 30.6pt; text-indent: -30.6pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">主題:</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">隱私權與個人資料保護</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: medium"><span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">主講人:<span style="color: black">國立中興大學科技法律研究所</span></span><span style="color: black; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span style="color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">廖緯民</span><span style="color: black; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></span><span style="color: black; font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">助理教授</span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 71.8pt; mso-yfti-irow: 3"><td width="120" style="border-right: black 1pt solid; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 90pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 71.8pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: small"><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman">16:15~16:40</font></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><font face="Times New Roman"><o:p></o:p></font></span></p></td><td width="516" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 387pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 1pt solid; height: 71.8pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid black .75pt; mso-border-right-alt: double black 2.25pt"><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">綜合座談</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height: 20.4pt; mso-yfti-irow: 4; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"><td width="636" colspan="2" style="border-right: black 2.25pt double; padding-right: 5.4pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 5.4pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: black 2.25pt double; width: 477pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: black 2.25pt double; height: 20.4pt; background-color: transparent; mso-border-top-alt: solid black .75pt"><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: center"><span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">散</span><span lang="EN-US" style="mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes"><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </font></span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">會</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 標楷體"><o:p></o:p></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt"><span style="font-size: medium"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman">&nbsp;</font></o:p></span></span><span lang="EN-US"><o:p></o:p></span></p></span></b></span><div style="text-align: center">&nbsp;</div></span>
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